calculate_ip() public

Sort through the various IP address headers, looking for the IP most likely to be the address of the actual remote client making this request.

REMOTE_ADDR will be correct if the request is made directly against the Ruby process, on e.g. Heroku. When the request is proxied by another server like HAProxy or NGINX, the IP address that made the original request will be put in an X-Forwarded-For header. If there are multiple proxies, that header may contain a list of IPs. Other proxy services set the Client-Ip header instead, so we check that too.

As discussed in this post about Rails IP Spoofing while the first IP in the list is likely to be the “originating” IP, it could also have been set by the client maliciously.

In order to find the first address that is (probably) accurate, we take the list of IPs, remove known and trusted proxies, and then take the last address left, which was presumably set by one of those proxies.

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