A Hash is a collection of key-value pairs. It is similar to an Array, except that indexing is done via arbitrary keys of any object type, not an integer index. The order in which you traverse a hash by either key or value may seem arbitrary, and will generally not be in the insertion order.

Hashes have a default value that is returned when accessing keys that do not exist in the hash. By default, that value is nil.

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August 14, 2008 - (v1_8_6_287)
11 thanks

Convert an Array to a Hash

The Hash.[] method converts an even number of parameters to a Hash. (The Hash[] method depends on the Hash class, but don’t confuse the method with the class itself). For example:

Hash['A', 'a', 'B', 'b']
# => {"A"=>"a", "B"=>"b"}

You can convert an array to a hash using the Hash[] method:

array = ['A', 'a', 'B', 'b', 'C', 'c']
hash = Hash[*array]
# => {"A"=>"a", "B"=>"b", "C"=>"c"}  

The * (splat) operator converts the array into an argument list, as expected by Hash[].

You can similarly convert an array of arrays to a Hash, by adding flatten:

array = [['A', 'a'], ['B', 'b'], ['C', 'c']]
hash = Hash[*array.flatten]  
# => {"A"=>"a", "B"=>"b", "C"=>"c"}

This also comes in handy when you have a list of words that you want to convert to a Hash:

  A a
  B b
  C c
# => {"A"=>"a", "B"=>"b", "C"=>"c"}
May 2, 2009
8 thanks

Create a Hash from two Arrays

Here is my favorite idiom for creating a Hash from an Array of keys and an Array of values:

keys = [:a, :b]
values = [1,2]
h = Hash[*keys.zip(values).flatten]      # => {:b=>2, :a=>1}
May 17, 2010
2 thanks

Add has_keys? method to Hash class

class Hash

def has_keys?(*_keys)
  (_keys - self.keys).empty?


h = {1=>‘a’,2=>‘b’}

h.has_keys?(1,2) #-> true

h.has_keys?(1,3) #-> false

March 17, 2010
0 thanks

Create new Hash as subset of another a different way


only keys

old_hash = { :a => 'A', :b => 'B', :c => 'C', :d => 'D', :e => 'E', :f => 'F' }
only_keys = [ :a, :c, :f ]
new_hash = old_hash.delete_if { |k, v| !only_keys.include? k }

only values

old_hash = { :a => 'A', :b => 'B', :c => 'C', :d => 'D', :e => 'E', :f => 'F' }
only_values = [ 'A', 'D', 'G' ]
new_hash = old_hash.delete_if { |k, v| !only_values.include? v }

there are many ways to skin a cat :)

August 15, 2008
0 thanks

Convert a Hash to an Array of Arrays using map

Although you‘ll always have to_a and it‘s faster, this trick is too cool to ignore…

Convert a Hash to an Array of Arrays using Enumerable#map

June 13, 2010
0 thanks

keys to/from symbols

There’s probably a more effecient way to do this…

class Hash

def keys_to_strings
  res = {}
  self.keys.each do |k|
    if self[k].is_a?(Hash)
      res[k.to_s] = self[k].keys_to_strings
      res[k.to_s] = self[k]
  return res

def keys_to_symbols
  res = {}
  self.keys.each do |k|
    if self[k].is_a?(Hash)
      res[k.to_sym] = self[k].keys_to_symbols
      res[k.to_sym] = self[k]
  return res

June 13, 2010
0 thanks

Add requires!

Useful for methods that take options = {}

class Hash

def requires!(*params)
  params.each do |param| 
    raise ArgumentError.new("Missing required parameter: #{param}") unless self.has_key?(param) 

June 13, 2011
0 thanks

Generalized Zip

My 5 cents.

I find trully useful this. Is a kind of generalized zip. You can combine 2 or more enumerables (arrays or others) of any size into a hash, array of arrays, .… The size of the result is the size of the bigest of the enumerables. For the shortests enumerables nil elements are used at the end.

# method compose
def compose(*enumerables)
  enumerables.map(&:size).max.times do
    for enumerable in enumerables
      tupla << enumerable.shift
    res << (block_given? ? yield(tupla) : tupla)

some examples:

en1= [1, 2, 3, 4]
en2= ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e']
en3= {:elem1 => "1", :elem2 => "2", :elem3 => "3"}

p compose en1.dup, en2.dup, en3.dup
p a1=compose(en2.dup, en1.dup) {|a,b| {a.to_sym => b}}

p a1.inject({}) {|ac,item| ac.merge item}
p a1.flatten

p a2=compose(en2.dup, en1.dup).flatten
p Hash[*a2]

p a3=compose(en2.dup, en3.dup).flatten

Their outputs are:

#[[1, "a", [:elem1, "1"]], [2, "b", [:elem2, "2"]], [3, "c", [:elem3, "3"]], [4, "d", nil], [nil, "e", nil]]
#[{:a=>1}, {:b=>2}, {:c=>3}, {:d=>4}, {:e=>nil}]
#{:b=>2, :d=>4, :e=>nil, :c=>3, :a=>1}
#[{:a=>1}, {:b=>2}, {:c=>3}, {:d=>4}, {:e=>nil}]
#["a", 1, "b", 2, "c", 3, "d", 4, "e", nil]
#{"a"=>1, "b"=>2, "c"=>3, "d"=>4, "e"=>nil}
#["a", :elem1, "1", "b", :elem2, "2", "c", :elem3, "3", "d", nil, "e", nil]
March 17, 2010 - (>= v1_8_7_72)
0 thanks

Create new Hash as subset of another

old_hash = {:a=>‘A’,:b=>‘B’,:c=>‘C’,:d=>‘D’,:e=>‘E’,:f=>‘F’}

only_keys = [:a,:c,:f]

new_hash = Hash[*old_hash.find_all{|k,v| only_keys.member?(k)}.flatten]

# => {:a=>“A”, :c=>“C”, :f=>“F”}

or for values

only_vals = [‘A’,‘D’,‘G’]

new_hash = Hash[*old_hash.find_all{|k,v| only_vals.member?(v)}.flatten]

# => {:a=>“A”, :d=>“D”}