Flowdock

Notes posted to Ruby

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February 8, 2009
0 thanks

Can be used on classes, too

For example:

class C
  protected
    def foo
    end 
end
p C.protected_instance_methods(false)

outputs:

["foo"]
February 5, 2009
1 thank

Weird method...

Takes three params:

- a Class constant (has to be an existing class)
- a "tag" param that, if set to "tag:yaml.org,2002:binary" will call unpack("m") on the third parameter, val; any other values for tag are ignored
- val can be a Hash or a String; if it's a string it is wrapped in a hash {'str' => val}, other wise...
  1. an instance of klass is allocated

  2. an instance of string is initialized, with the val parameter, and bound to the class context

  3. for each key in val (if any!), set instance variables in the instantiated class

So, what does this method do, a part from making my eyes hurt? It loads a yaml file and instantiates a class and sets the ivars found in the yaml file. Sorta.

It is probably the worst code I have ever seen in the ruby standard libs. WTF!!

:)

February 4, 2009
1 thank

RE: Careful when building gems

I found out a way to combine using RDoc::usage when you are building a gem. By ripping out the code from the usage method you can create your own version which opens the correct file.

In my case, I skipped the file reading and just put the usage information in a string and used that directly.

Here is my code:

$usage = %Q{
 = Synopsis
 ...
 = Usage
 ...

 == Options
 ...
 }

 # Shamefully stolen from RDoc#usage. We cannot use RDoc::usage because
 # RubyGems will call this from a wrapper, and #usage is hardcoded to look
 # at the top-level file instead of the current one. I have changed this
 # code to instead just parse a string.
 def usage_and_exit!
   markup = SM::SimpleMarkup.new
   flow_convertor = SM::ToFlow.new

   flow = markup.convert($usage, flow_convertor)

   options = RI::Options.instance
   formatter = options.formatter.new(options, "")
   formatter.display_flow(flow)

   exit(0)
 end

Look in usage_no_exit if you want to rip stuff out. It’s up to you how and if you implement this at all, but it’s a shortcut to use the RDoc code and formatting. Do also consider doing the formatting yourself by hand and just output that string instead.

February 4, 2009
3 thanks

Multiline regexps

A shortcut for multiline regular expressions is

/First line.*Other line/m

(notice the trailing /m)

For example:

text = <<-END
  Hello world!
  This is a test.
END

text.match(/world.*test/m).nil?  #=> false
text.match(/world.*test/).nil?   #=> true
February 4, 2009
0 thanks

Careful when building gems

If you are building a gem with executables and you think about using RDoc::Usage for facilitating the --help message, think again.

usage and usage_no_exit is hardcoded to look for the initial comment in the top level file being executed, which is normally fine, but when installing a gem, RubyGems will generate a wrapper executable for you, and usage will therefore look in that wrapper file for the comment instead of your own file.

The methods contain too much code to be easily monkey patched too. Hopefully, this will be fixed in a later version.

January 22, 2009
2 thanks

Correct way to quote for the shell

A followup for my previous comment;

I actually found a good way to handle quoting for the shell in Ruby 1.9 in case you really need to (for example to pipe the output from the examples I gave below).

require 'shellwords'

escape = lambda { |str| Shellwords.shellescape(str) }
file = %(Peter "Smiley" McGraw.txt)
puts "grep foobar #{escape[file]} > foobars"
  # => grep foobar "Peter \"Smiley\" McGraw.txt" > foobars

Do note that I have not tested this since I do not have Ruby 1.9 installed, but from what I have read, this should work properly there.

I still do not know a good way to do this in Ruby 1.8.

January 15, 2009
4 thanks

Convert String to Class in Rails

ncancelliere gave us a very useful tip below, and I just want to make an addendum for it:

If you are using Rails, there is a CoreExtension for this called String#constantize.

"Foo::BarKeeper".constantize #=> Foo::BarKeeper

You can use it with String#camelize if you have to convert the name too

"foo/bar_keeper".camelize             #=> "Foo::BarKeeper"
"foo/bar_keeper".camelize.constantize #=> Foo::BarKeeper

Don’t forget to rescue NameError in case there was an invalid class name. :-)

January 15, 2009 - (v1_8_6_287)
1 thank

Convert String to Class

this example shows how you can take a string and make it a class and then send it a method

Kernel.const_get(my_string.capitalize).select_options
January 14, 2009
6 thanks

File open permissions

Usage: File.open path, flags, [permissions]

Flags (bitmasks)

Access:

File::RDONLY

Read-only

File::WRONLY

Write-only

File::RDWR

Read and write

If the file exists:

File::TRUNC

Truncate

File::APPEND

Append

File::EXCL

Fail

If the file doesn’t exist:

File::CREAT

Create

Flags (strings)

r

File::RDONLY

r+

File::RDWR

w

File::WRONLY|File::TRUNC|File::CREAT

a

File::WRONLY|File::APPEND|File::CREAT

Examples

File.open path, File::RDONLY
File.open path, 'w'
File.open path, File::WRONLY|File::TRUNC|File::CREAT
File.open path, File::WRONLY|File::TRUNC|File::CREAT, '0666'
January 12, 2009
2 thanks

A word of warning

This method returns the supplied string with double quotes around it if it has a space in it, otherwise leaves it alone.

This is useful when sending paths to the shell or any similar operations. Here is a small demonstration of how it works and why it would be useful:

def cat(term)
  puts "cat #{term}"
end

def cat_q(term)
  puts "cat #{term.quote}"
end

# No difference without whitespace
cat   "hello.txt"       #=> cat hello.txt    -- OK!
cat_q "hello.txt"       #=> cat hello.txt    -- OK!

# With whitespace
cat   "hello world.txt" #=> cat hello world.txt    -- Error
                        #   trying to find "hello" or "world.txt"

cat_q "hello world.txt" #=> cat "hello world.txt"   -- OK!

Watch out if you want to do things securely, since this method does not escape quotes that are already there!

cat_q 'Peter "Smiley" McGraw.txt' #=> cat "Peter "Smiley" McGraw.txt" -- ERROR!

It is possible to insert fork bombs and other dangerous stuff by taking advantage of this, and that might take down the whole machine, steal data or delete data depending on the rights of the user executing the script.

The insecurity might also transfer into other areas in case you are not using this method for the shell, but for something else.

Please do note that most of these problems can be avoided if you just split the arguments in Ruby when doing system calls, which is easier to do most of the time.

quoted_files = file_list.collect { |f| f.quote }  
system("grep #{search.quote} #{quoted_files.join(' ')}")

system("grep", search, *file_list) # Much easier!

So, in summary: You should only use this method if you know what you’re doing! It’s neither secure nor needed in most (but not all) cases.

December 23, 2008
0 thanks

Entries are not standalone!

The entry Pathnames consist solely of leaf filenames, so they’re not directly useable in filesystem operations like “open” or “directory?”. To create a useable Pathname, append the entry onto the directory you’re iterating over.

Also keep in mind that the iteration includes the magic entries “.” and “..”, which you probably want to skip. (Is this true on Windows too?)

The #children method doesn’t have either of these issues, although it’s slightly less efficient since it creates an Array of Pathnames up-front instead of yielding one at a time.

December 6, 2008
4 thanks

Array expansion in blocks

The syntax can be improved as changing the second parameter of the block (values) and using an array of two variables instead, which will be used by Ruby as the key and value of “array”.

array = [['A', 'a'], ['B', 'b'], ['C', 'c']]

hash = array.inject({}) do |memo, (key, value)|
  memo[key] = value
  memo
end

hash
# => {'A' => 'a', 'B' => 'b', 'C' => 'c'}
December 2, 2008
5 thanks

From the official docs

enum.inject(initial) {| memo, obj | block } => obj enum.inject {| memo, obj | block } => obj

Combines the elements of enum by applying the block to an accumulator value (memo) and each element in turn. At each step, memo is set to the value returned by the block. The first form lets you supply an initial value for memo. The second form uses the first element of the collection as a the initial value (and skips that element while iterating).

# Sum some numbers
(5..10).inject {|sum, n| sum + n }              #=> 45
# Multiply some numbers
(5..10).inject(1) {|product, n| product * n }   #=> 151200

# find the longest word
longest = %w{ cat sheep bear }.inject do |memo,word|
   memo.length > word.length ? memo : word
end
longest                                         #=> "sheep"

# find the length of the longest word
longest = %w{ cat sheep bear }.inject(0) do |memo,word|
   memo >= word.length ? memo : word.length
end
longest                                         #=> 5

http://www.ruby-doc.org/core/classes/Enumerable.html

November 20, 2008
1 thank
November 19, 2008
9 thanks

Formatting options

Readable strftime

%a - The abbreviated weekday name (“Sun”)

%A - The full weekday name (“Sunday”)

%b - The abbreviated month name (“Jan”)

%B - The full month name (“January”)

%c - The preferred local date and time representation

%d - Day of the month (01..31)

%H - Hour of the day, 24-hour clock (00..23)

%I - Hour of the day, 12-hour clock (01..12)

%j - Day of the year (001..366)

%m - Month of the year (01..12)

%M - Minute of the hour (00..59)

%p - Meridian indicator (“AM” or “PM”)

%S - Second of the minute (00..60)

%U - Week number of the current year, starting with the first Sunday as the first day of the first week (00..53)

%W - Week number of the current year, starting with the first Monday as the first day of the first week (00..53)

%w - Day of the week (Sunday is 0, 0..6)

%x - Preferred representation for the date alone, no time

%X - Preferred representation for the time alone, no date

%y - Year without a century (00..99)

%Y - Year with century

%Z - Time zone name %% - Literal “%’’ character t = Time.now t.strftime(“Printed on %m/%d/%Y”) #=> “Printed on 04/09/2003” t.strftime(“at %I:%M%p”) #=> “at 08:56AM”

November 18, 2008
8 thanks

Pop for last, Shift for first

If you want to pop the first element instead of the last one, use shift .

November 6, 2008 - (v1_8_6_287)
1 thank

Missing Documentation

Returns false if obj <=> min is less than zero or if anObject <=> max is greater than zero, true otherwise.

3.between?(1, 5)               #=> true
6.between?(1, 5)               #=> false
'cat'.between?('ant', 'dog')   #=> true
'gnu'.between?('ant', 'dog')   #=> false
November 2, 2008 - (v1_8_6_287)
1 thank

The reverse operation of split is join.

Given that String#split returns an array, its reverse operation is Array#join. Example:

"life is awesome".split
=>["life","is","awesome"]

["life","is","awesome"].join(" ")
=>"life is awesome"
October 23, 2008
1 thank

Mocking puts from RSpec

If you want to mock calls to puts from RSpec, do it from the class/module you are in:

module Foo
  def self.foo
    puts "hello"
  end
end

describe Foo do
  it "should write 'hello' when foo() is called" do
    Foo.should_receive(:puts).with("hello")  # Kernel and Object don't work in this case...
    Foo.foo
  end
end
October 17, 2008
1 thank

Use encode64!

b64encode will print to the commandline, what a useful feature…

October 9, 2008
6 thanks

Works with URLs too!

You can use it for web urls as well:

path, file = File.split('/uploads/art/2869-speaking-of-pic.jpg')
p path # => "/uploads/art"
p file # => "2869-speaking-of-pic.jpg"

And you can also use join, to merge url back from the components:

path = File.join(["/uploads/art", "2869-speaking-of-pic.jpg"])
p path # => "/uploads/art/2869-speaking-of-pic.jpg"

Using #join and #split for operations on files and path parts of the URLs is generally better than simply joining/splitting strings by ‘/’ symbol. Mostly because of normalization:

File.split('//tmp///someimage.jpg') # => ["/tmp", "someimage.jpg"]
'//tmp///someimage.jpg'.split('/') # => ["", "", "tmp", "", "", "someimage.jpg"]

Same thing happens with join.

October 9, 2008
1 thank

Works for URLs too

You can use it for web urls as well:

path, file = File.split('/uploads/art/2869-speaking-of-pic.jpg')
p path # => "/uploads/art"
p file # => "2869-speaking-of-pic.jpg"

And you can also use join, to merge url back from the components:

path = File.join(["/uploads/art", "2869-speaking-of-pic.jpg"])
p path # => "/uploads/art/2869-speaking-of-pic.jpg"

Using #join and #split for operations on files and path parts of the URLs is generally better than simply joining/splitting strings by ‘/’ symbol. Mostly because of normalization:

File.split('//tmp///someimage.jpg') # => ["/tmp", "someimage.jpg"]
'//tmp///someimage.jpg'.split('/') # => ["", "", "tmp", "", "", "someimage.jpg"]

Same thing happens with join.

October 3, 2008
0 thanks

POST DATA

post data should be separed with ‘&’ and not ‘;’

your example

req.set_form_data({'from'=>'2005-01-01', 'to'=>'2005-03-31'}, ';')

should be

req.set_form_data({'from'=>'2005-01-01', 'to'=>'2005-03-31'}, '&')

isnt it?

September 21, 2008
0 thanks

Better Description

This is really a bitshift left.

September 12, 2008
24 thanks

Readable strftime

%a - The abbreviated weekday name (“Sun”)

%A - The full weekday name (“Sunday”)

%b - The abbreviated month name (“Jan”)

%B - The full month name (“January”)

%c - The preferred local date and time representation

%d - Day of the month (01..31) %H - Hour of the day, 24-hour clock (00..23)

%I - Hour of the day, 12-hour clock (01..12)

%j - Day of the year (001..366)

%m - Month of the year (01..12) %M - Minute of the hour (00..59)

%p - Meridian indicator (“AM” or “PM”)

%S - Second of the minute (00..60)

%U - Week number of the current year, starting with the first Sunday as the first day of the first week (00..53)

%W - Week number of the current year, starting with the first Monday as the first day of the first week (00..53)

%w - Day of the week (Sunday is 0, 0..6)

%x - Preferred representation for the date alone, no time

%X - Preferred representation for the time alone, no date

%y - Year without a century (00..99) %Y - Year with century

%Z - Time zone name %% - Literal “%” character t = Time.now t.strftime(“Printed on %m/%d/%Y”) #=> “Printed on 04/09/2003” t.strftime(“at %I:%M%p”) #=> “at 08:56AM”

September 10, 2008
0 thanks

Actual superclass

This class’s actual superclass is Net::HTTPRequest, for some reason that isn’t linked in here.

September 5, 2008
3 thanks

Require 'strscan'

To use the StringScanner class,

require 'strscan'
August 27, 2008 - (v1_8_6_287)
3 thanks

Example of raising a custom exception

Create custom exception<br> <pre> class PersonalException < Exception end </pre>

Raise the exception<br> <pre> raise PersonalException.new, “message” </pre>

August 23, 2008
2 thanks

Needs requiring 'enumerator' to work

This method needs that you

require 'enumerator'

for this method to be available.